Cameroon is a Central African country located on the Gulf of Guinea, between the 2nd and 13th degrees of north latitude and the 9th and 16th degrees east longitude. The country covers an area of 475,650 square kilometers. It has a triangular shape that stretches south to Lake Chad on nearly 1200 km away, while the base is spread from west to east 800 km. It has south west a sea border of 420 km along the Atlantic Ocean. It is bounded to the west by Nigeria, to the south by Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, to the east by the Central African Republic and northeast by Chad. Finally, at the top of the triangle, north, it is headed by Lake Chad.
The natural environment of Cameroon is diverse. They say that this country is Africa in miniature.
Indeed, several types of natural areas contribute to the geographical diversity of the country.
The southern forest (central provinces, East, Littoral, South and South-West) is located in the maritime and equatorial zones. This area is characterized by dense vegetation, a vast river system and a hot and humid climate with abundant rainfall. This area is conducive to the cultivation of cocoa, oil palm, banana, rubber trees and tobacco, etc. It is home to the two largest cities: Douala (first city, main port and economic capital with its commercial and industrial activities), Yaoundé (second city and political capital). Include also major urban centers such as Edea characterized by its heavy industry and its hydro-power plant, Limbe, headquarters of the oil industry and Kribi terminal Chad Cameroon pipeline.
The highlands of the west (western provinces and the Northwest), whose average altitude is above 1100 m, form a region rich in volcanic soils favorable to agriculture (coffee, vegetable, etc. .). The vegetation is less dense than in the southern forest and cool climate that prevails is favorable to the emergence of all kinds of activities. In addition, the high population density compared to the national average in fact one of the first areas of emigration. The main cities are Bafoussam, Bamenda and the university town of Dschang. Sudano Sahelian north (provinces of Adamawa, North and Far North) is a region of savannah and steppe. Outside the Adamawa plateau where the climate is more temperate, the rest of the region is characterized by a hot and dry climate tropical rainfall increasingly limited as and as we approach the Lake Chad . The area is conducive to the breeding of cattle and the cultivation of cotton, onion, millet, potatoes, white yams and peanuts.